The runes script first appeared in Germanic tribes in Central and Eastern Europe. Some runes symbols are likely adopted from other Greek, Etruscan, and Roman alphabets. The runes character is composed of straight lines that make it easy to engrave on stone or wood. The earliest runes on stone date to the late 3rd century C.E., although these characters may have been in use for a long time.
The Old Norse script or “Elder Futhark” consists of 24 runes characters. The first six runes characters read the word “FUTHARK”. When the runes character was introduced north into the Scandinavian community, some runes symbols were omitted to 16 runes. Between 400 and 600 C.E., three Norse tribes – the Angles, Saxons and Jutes – invaded Great Britain. They brought the runes here. The pattern of some runes has been altered, most notably the runes for A / O, C / K, H, J, S and Ng. In addition, the language changes have added 9 runes to the alphabet to complement the pronunciation, and a number of runes have been modified to form corresponding characters. This alphabet, which was expanded to 33 characters, became popular and became known as Anglo-Saxon Futhorc. The runes themselves have been kept relatively intact.
See more at: The alchemical table of symbols poster