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stressed agriculture and lack of firewood may need brought on the Anasazi to abandon Chaco Canyon about seven-hundred years in the past . Scattered junipers develop at Chaco Canyon today, however no pinyons do. The incised streambed can be virtually unimaginable to change today for agriculture. Because of human actions that started greater than 1, years in the past, Chaco Canyon nonetheless sustains impoverished plant and animal communities and stays a poor place for people to reside. In elements of North America, the domesticated bottle gourd, chili pepper, beans, squash, and maize existed 5,-6, years ago. The more sedentary life-style that came with agriculture was accompanied by a reduced dependence on wild crops and animals. But the gradual transition in all probability entailed shifting cultivation quite than long-term use of the identical plots, and hunting, trapping, fishing, and gathering remained an important part of subsistence in most of North America long after crops and animals had been domesticated. At the time of European contact, North American Indians still hunted turkey, black bear, deer, elk, moose, bison, and lots of smaller species. Some species, such as the California condor Simons, 1983; Bates et al., 1993 and eagles, have been hunted for feathers, bones, or ceremonial functions rather than for food. The collapse of the massive North American mammal communities led to the demise of dependent species, corresponding to carrion-feeding birds that fed on the abundant number of carrion supplied by herds of large animals, a lot as in modern African sport parks. For instance, 11, years ago, when floor sloths, mammoths, mastodons, horses, tapir, camels, and other species existed across North America, the presently endangered California condor lived as distant as Florida and New York . ; practically all amphibian, reptile, and small-mammal species survived. A variety of North American megafauna was lost, including two glyptodont, four floor sloth, two bear, two sabertooth, one cheetah, one beaver, two capybara, two mastodon, one mammoth, one horse, one tapir, two peccary, three camel, two deer, one pronghorn, and 4 bovid genera Martin, 1984; 199. Humans, including early forms of Homo and modern Homo sapiens, have occupied a lot of Africa and Eurasia for lots of of millennia Diamond, 199; Klein, 199. Archaeological evidence suggests that folks in Africa and Eurasia have hunted massive mammals since a minimum of a hundred, years in the past . This early human predation probably centered on small or weak individuals somewhat than large, doubtlessly dangerous animals.
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